'바다, 배, 신앙'
전통 해양신앙 자료전시
문화재청 국립해양문화재연구소(소장 직무대리 이규훈)는 제3회 섬의 날(8. 8.)을 맞아 7월 29일부터 11월 20일까지 목포해양유물전시관 기획전시실에서 전통 해양 신앙 관련 자료 100여 점을 전시하는 특별전 「바다, 배船, 신앙」(Sea, Ship, Belief)을 개최한다.
삼면이 바다인 우리나라는 각 해역을 따라 다양한 해양 신앙이 제사와 의례 형태로 토착화되어 전해오고 있다. 연구소는 연구자들의 자문을 통해 모은 역사·민속 자료(아카이브)와 연구성과물, 현장의 유·무형 수집자료를 통해 관람객들이 바다공간의 서사(敍事), 그리고 바닷사람들의 삶과 애환을 이해할 수 있도록 총 4부로 전시를 구성하였다.
먼저 ▲ 1부 ‘배(船)-삶과 두려움의 바다를 넘나들다’에서는 ① 배와 뱃고사, ② 배의 수호신 ‘배서낭’, ③ 출항의 상징 ‘뱃기’, ④ 두려움의 바다 ‘해난사고’로 세부 주제를 구분하여 관람객들이 바다의 특수성을 공감할 수 있도록 하였다.
▲ 2부 ‘바다의 신(海神)-국가와 백성의 수호신이 되다’에서는 ① 바다의 신, ② 국가의 해신제라는 세부 주제로, 온 바다를 관장하는 <용신도(龍神圖)>(국립해양박물관), 서해의 고기잡이신 <조선 임경업(林慶業) 장군 초상화>(국립중앙박물관), 남해의 어로신 <고려 최영(崔瑩) 장군 무신도>(국립민속박물관) 등 해신도(海神圖)를 선보인다.
전시는 휴관일인 월요일을 제외하고 오전 9시부터 오후 6시까지 운영하며, 더 자세한 사항은 국립해양문화재연구소(061-270-3001)로 문의하면 된다.
문화재청 국립해양문화재연구소는 이번 전시를 통하여 자연과 인간, 신을 잇는 바닷사람들의 삶을 만나고, 무한한 자원을 베풀어주는 공간이자 생존의 공간이 되어준 바다에서 피어난 우리나라 해양문화의 전통과 현재를 이해할 수 있는 계기가 되기를 기대한다.
The National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (Lee Kyu Hoon, Director's representative) presents its special exhibition of 2022 entitled 'Sea, Ship, Beliefs' at the Mokpo Maritime Museum from July 29 to November 20 to mark the 3rd Island Day.
Korea is a peninsula surrounded by water on three sides; hence, various maritime beliefs have been passing down along coastal regions. This exhibition reveals the stories of the people who adapt themselves to sea and make lives with the sea. Traditional religious beliefs and practices protect fishermen’s lives in an ever-changing sea, where abundance and disaster coexist. The National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage hopes this exhibition enables visitors to explore the lives of the fishermen who sublimated the desire for an abundant catch of fish and safety at sea into community festivals.
The first theme is 'Ships, Crossing over the Sea of Life and Fear'. Ships are vital to people who depend on seas, rivers or lakes for their way of life and their live -lihoods. While the art of boat building and sailing skills have continuously advanced, dangers faced by the fishermen are unavoidable. Varieties of boat rituals and worship of the boat guardian deities are therefore performed by fishing communities in Korea.
The second theme is 'Sea God, Worshiped as a Guardian Deity of Nation and the People'. Since ancient time, people believed that deities who rule earth, sea, and sky. Celestial god and water god, in particular, are worshiped not only for well-being of individual and community, but also for peace in the royal family, national defense, and navigational safety. Sea god rituals were held not only by the state, but also by local officials and civilians to express gratitude for the favors of spiritual beings.
The third theme is 'Fishermen, Praying for Safety and a Big Catch'. Wishing for an abundant catch and safe navigation, fishermen worshiped deities. Maritime rituals refer to a number of rites held in the coastal regions, such as sea, island, docks and seaside. Dangje of the west coast, pungeoje and byeolsije of the eastern and southern coasts are typical communal rites. Pungeoje(ritual for big catch) was a ceremonial process to summon aid from various sea gods, aiming at encouraging a bounteous catch and ensuring a safe return to harbours.
The fourth theme is 'Boats, Guiding Souls from Sea to Heaven'. In Korean Shamanism, a death ritual is held to app-ease both the living and the dead. In shamanic rites, the boat as a symbol was treated as a vehicle to transport individuals to the Otherworld with confidence and comfort. During shamanic death ceremonies, shamans either went directly to the sea by boat or floated a miniature of straw ship on the beach, and prayed for the spirit of the dead to leave this world and safely move to heaven.
The National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage hopes that the exhibition entitled “Sea, Ship and Belief” will deepen visitors’ understanding of the way of life of fishermen in the past. The rituals preserved in fishing villages across Korea were developed by fishing communities over a long period of time as an integral part of their way of life, in which abundance coexisted with fear. The traditional sea belief believed that individuals and their entire community, and humans, nature and local deities all assisted each other in ensuring their safety and prosperity, and consequently developed rituals that reflected their worship. The National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage expects that this exhibition will contribute to restoring the traditional rituals of Korean fishing communities and preserving them for future generations as a crucial element of the marine folk cultural heritage.
<저작권자 ⓒ 무단전재 및 재배포 금지>